### Post by 1dave on May 3, 2020 13:15:25 GMT -5

I'm going to have to spend more time in this one!

www.exmfpropulsions.com/New_Physics/MIH.htm

www.exmfpropulsions.com/New_Physics/MIH.htm

by Mahmoud E. Yousif - E-mail: [email protected]/

C/O Physics Department - The University of Nairobi, P.O.Box 30197 Nairobi-Kenya

ABSTRACT

A magnetic interaction hypothesis (MIH) is suggested which leads to a re-interpretation of the interaction mechanism for the magnetic force. This MIH is used to explain energization of charged particles on micro scale. Further considerations including the nuclear force, inter-atomic stability, and the reproduction of spectral lines, are reported.

C/O Physics Department - The University of Nairobi, P.O.Box 30197 Nairobi-Kenya

ABSTRACT

A magnetic interaction hypothesis (MIH) is suggested which leads to a re-interpretation of the interaction mechanism for the magnetic force. This MIH is used to explain energization of charged particles on micro scale. Further considerations including the nuclear force, inter-atomic stability, and the reproduction of spectral lines, are reported.

6:0 DISCUSSIONS

1- Although magnetic fields are produced due to relative motion of charged particles, the direct cause of the magnetic force is here considered to result from the interaction of magnetic fields. This interaction explains the mechanism behind the attractive and the repulsive forces between any two wires carrying electric currents as shown in Fig.2. It also explains the orbital excitation energy characteristics for charged particles and why the direction gyration of an electron is opposite to that of a proton, as shown in Fig.3.

2- The exponential nature of Fig.5 is due to the production of spinning magnetic fields, and above proton's surface (r = 0.468fm) as proved for neutron’s SMF [26], compared with Fig.4.

3- The exact measured magnitude of the nuclear force for the proton is determined by the magnitude of produced BTp given by Eq.{9}. In this case it is related to the magnetic moment value. Since the value of the proton's angular frequency (wp) has been determined as 0.5 rad. sec. (i.e. from Eqs.{26},{27},{28},{29},{30}, and {31}), therefore its spinning frequency (fps) is of the magnitude of 0.079577471 s-1, from which BTp is derived.

4- The CMF interaction with the magnetic field (B1) is represented in Fig.3. The same mechanism occurred inside an atom where the balance of both the Fe and Fm with FC at specific ree and rme brings stability to the atom, as shown in Fig.7.

5- The nature of the magnetic interaction is that, the weaker CMF (B2) interacts with the stronger magnetic field (B1) at two specific points. These two points arise due to the variation in the strength of B1p as shown in Fig.7, for hydrogen atom.

6- From Eqs.{18}, {20} and {24}, the value of ree include proton's radius rp, and electron's radius re. Both are thought to be equal, and derived from Eq.{9}.

7- The Bohr radius (rB), giving in the right hand side of Eq.{22}, is resulted from the balance of both the Coulomb's electrostatic and centripetal forces, (with value of 0.5291793603x10-10 m) [27, 28], it gives the same value given by the magnetic radius (rme), therefore both are equal and given by Eq.{22} and shown in Table.2.

8- The known value for electron's orbital angular momentum (Lo) [29] is 1.054x10-34 kg.m2s-1. While the value obtained from Table.2, parameters are 1.054572669x10-34 kg.m2s-1 using ree.

9- Electron's magnetic moment me = 9.284770119x10-24 j/T obtained from multiplication of Bohr magneton (mB) [30] by 1.001159652193 as verified by experiments [22, 31], is obtained with the same value using any of Eq.{26}, thus Bohr magneton (mB) gives correct magnetic moment value when using correct parameters (vO and rme).

10- The electrostatic radius, ree which determined vo, Fe, rme, rr, and B1U is derived by Eq.{19} using (me and h), or Eq.{21}, or Eq.{25}, all of which give the value of 0.528566407x10-10m, and given in Table.2.

11- The vo is derived either from Planck's relation Eq.{20} or the radiated spectral line, given by Eq.{32}.

12- The known proton's radius (rp) [22], is 1x10-15 m, while from Eq.{9}, rp=1.1060236231x10-15 m.

13- The excitation energy (ED) is relative to the ionisation energy [27, 28], for hydrogen atom the ionisation energy, used in Eqs. {27},{28},{29} {30} and{31} is 13.5981 eV [26].

14- For any atom if both the radiated wavelength l and the excitation velocity vD is known then the electron's natural orbital velocity vo (at natural orbital radius) can be obtained using Eqs.{20} or {32}.

15- With reference to two points above, atomic spectral lines can be reproduced as shown in Fig.8. While Table.3, shows the reproduction sequential mechanism, and Table.4, summarised all of Table.3, using only Eq.{31}, both tables gives the same results.

16- Energy changes for charged particles therefore take the following two forms:

(a) The normal work done due to the displacement of the magnetic force from the normal orbital radius (rme) to the excitation orbital radius (rn) inside an atom, the energy of which is radiated, as shown in Fig.8.

(b)Starting from the single particle micro-level, energy as given by Eq.{14} and shown in Fig.6, electrons and protons can proceed to higher radial energy, due to the produced external magnetic field (ExMF). The several steps of energization may lead to acceleration mechanisms, such as those found in the magnetopause boundary in the transition region [3, 32], both aurora oval [6], and stable aurora red arc system (SAR-arc) [33], radiation belts [3], and the ring current's [6] comprising charged particles.

17- From Fig.5:b. The degree of stability for two nucleons depends on the equilibrium distance, where attraction and repulsion forces are balanced, similar to forces between two atoms [34]. Relative unbalance of the nuclear force magnitude causes the vibration (or oscillation) motion of both nucleons (around 0.7 Fm, as shown in Fig.5.b.). Similar to the molecule's vibration motion of the spring form, associated with energy [35, 36]. Larger nucleus BTU magnitudes, give higher oscillations and lower nucleus nuclear stability, with the associated energy and consequently leading to decay processes.

18- From point (15), the smallest excitation potential of 1.982807168x10-3 eV can reproduce Pfund series of 74599.21569Å in hydrogen atom. This therefore reveals the precision of all natural phenomena mechanisms.

19- The 1922, silver atoms beam experiment carried out by Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach, where the beam split into two sub-beams on the detecting plate by the action of the electromagnetic field [29].

The experiment is re-interpreted as:

(a) While in motion, the silver atom NSMF foreheads consist of both NSMF.

(b) In uniform field, each forward NSMF detected the field as relatively equal magnitude of B.

Thus F = (B1) (B2N) r2 c, gives net F = 0.

(c) In no uniform field, each of the NSMF interacted as follow:

-NSMF is attracted upward by -F = (+B1) (-B2U) r2 c.

+NSMF is repelled downward by +F = (+B1) (+B2U) r2 c.

Therefore the silver atoms formed split on the detected glass.

20- The measured nuclear force between two protons which is (45)2 times greater than the electric force [8], is re-interpreted as kinetic energy phase of great accelerated nucleons.

21- The MIH open the door for several new ideas in many fields.

22- Physical constant used, are:

q = 1.60217733x10-19 C.

me = 9.1093897x10-31 kg.

mp = 1.6726231x10-27 kg.

h = 6.6260755x10-34 J.s [12].

eO = 8.854223x10-12 C2.N-1.m-2 [37].

Acknowledgement

My gratitude to my sister Sophya and her husband Abubakar Mohamad and children for their hospitality. The Chairman of Physics Department, University of Nairobi, Prof. B.O. Kola for providing the scientific umbrella, and Dr John Buers Awuor and Dr Lino Gwaki in the Physics Department without whom this work could not have taken the present form. Late Leader Yousif Kuwa Makki, for his moral supports, The late Dr. Tajudeen Abdul-Raheem, the stuff of Nuba Relief Rehabilitation and Development Organization (NRRDO), particularly Mr Ali Abdulrahman , Amar Amon and Jacob Idriss. Brothers and sisters, Mustafa, Mahamad, Halima, Hukmalla, Arafa, Asha, Ahmad and Esmaeil. Finally, Dr Ali Khogali, Prof.John O. Owino, Dr C. Oludha, Dr P. Baki, Shiekh-Eldien Mousa, Katoo T. Nzivo, Chiromo Library Stuff, Kenya National Library and University of Makerery Library (Uganda).

1- Although magnetic fields are produced due to relative motion of charged particles, the direct cause of the magnetic force is here considered to result from the interaction of magnetic fields. This interaction explains the mechanism behind the attractive and the repulsive forces between any two wires carrying electric currents as shown in Fig.2. It also explains the orbital excitation energy characteristics for charged particles and why the direction gyration of an electron is opposite to that of a proton, as shown in Fig.3.

2- The exponential nature of Fig.5 is due to the production of spinning magnetic fields, and above proton's surface (r = 0.468fm) as proved for neutron’s SMF [26], compared with Fig.4.

3- The exact measured magnitude of the nuclear force for the proton is determined by the magnitude of produced BTp given by Eq.{9}. In this case it is related to the magnetic moment value. Since the value of the proton's angular frequency (wp) has been determined as 0.5 rad. sec. (i.e. from Eqs.{26},{27},{28},{29},{30}, and {31}), therefore its spinning frequency (fps) is of the magnitude of 0.079577471 s-1, from which BTp is derived.

4- The CMF interaction with the magnetic field (B1) is represented in Fig.3. The same mechanism occurred inside an atom where the balance of both the Fe and Fm with FC at specific ree and rme brings stability to the atom, as shown in Fig.7.

5- The nature of the magnetic interaction is that, the weaker CMF (B2) interacts with the stronger magnetic field (B1) at two specific points. These two points arise due to the variation in the strength of B1p as shown in Fig.7, for hydrogen atom.

6- From Eqs.{18}, {20} and {24}, the value of ree include proton's radius rp, and electron's radius re. Both are thought to be equal, and derived from Eq.{9}.

7- The Bohr radius (rB), giving in the right hand side of Eq.{22}, is resulted from the balance of both the Coulomb's electrostatic and centripetal forces, (with value of 0.5291793603x10-10 m) [27, 28], it gives the same value given by the magnetic radius (rme), therefore both are equal and given by Eq.{22} and shown in Table.2.

8- The known value for electron's orbital angular momentum (Lo) [29] is 1.054x10-34 kg.m2s-1. While the value obtained from Table.2, parameters are 1.054572669x10-34 kg.m2s-1 using ree.

9- Electron's magnetic moment me = 9.284770119x10-24 j/T obtained from multiplication of Bohr magneton (mB) [30] by 1.001159652193 as verified by experiments [22, 31], is obtained with the same value using any of Eq.{26}, thus Bohr magneton (mB) gives correct magnetic moment value when using correct parameters (vO and rme).

10- The electrostatic radius, ree which determined vo, Fe, rme, rr, and B1U is derived by Eq.{19} using (me and h), or Eq.{21}, or Eq.{25}, all of which give the value of 0.528566407x10-10m, and given in Table.2.

11- The vo is derived either from Planck's relation Eq.{20} or the radiated spectral line, given by Eq.{32}.

12- The known proton's radius (rp) [22], is 1x10-15 m, while from Eq.{9}, rp=1.1060236231x10-15 m.

13- The excitation energy (ED) is relative to the ionisation energy [27, 28], for hydrogen atom the ionisation energy, used in Eqs. {27},{28},{29} {30} and{31} is 13.5981 eV [26].

14- For any atom if both the radiated wavelength l and the excitation velocity vD is known then the electron's natural orbital velocity vo (at natural orbital radius) can be obtained using Eqs.{20} or {32}.

15- With reference to two points above, atomic spectral lines can be reproduced as shown in Fig.8. While Table.3, shows the reproduction sequential mechanism, and Table.4, summarised all of Table.3, using only Eq.{31}, both tables gives the same results.

16- Energy changes for charged particles therefore take the following two forms:

(a) The normal work done due to the displacement of the magnetic force from the normal orbital radius (rme) to the excitation orbital radius (rn) inside an atom, the energy of which is radiated, as shown in Fig.8.

(b)Starting from the single particle micro-level, energy as given by Eq.{14} and shown in Fig.6, electrons and protons can proceed to higher radial energy, due to the produced external magnetic field (ExMF). The several steps of energization may lead to acceleration mechanisms, such as those found in the magnetopause boundary in the transition region [3, 32], both aurora oval [6], and stable aurora red arc system (SAR-arc) [33], radiation belts [3], and the ring current's [6] comprising charged particles.

17- From Fig.5:b. The degree of stability for two nucleons depends on the equilibrium distance, where attraction and repulsion forces are balanced, similar to forces between two atoms [34]. Relative unbalance of the nuclear force magnitude causes the vibration (or oscillation) motion of both nucleons (around 0.7 Fm, as shown in Fig.5.b.). Similar to the molecule's vibration motion of the spring form, associated with energy [35, 36]. Larger nucleus BTU magnitudes, give higher oscillations and lower nucleus nuclear stability, with the associated energy and consequently leading to decay processes.

18- From point (15), the smallest excitation potential of 1.982807168x10-3 eV can reproduce Pfund series of 74599.21569Å in hydrogen atom. This therefore reveals the precision of all natural phenomena mechanisms.

19- The 1922, silver atoms beam experiment carried out by Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach, where the beam split into two sub-beams on the detecting plate by the action of the electromagnetic field [29].

The experiment is re-interpreted as:

(a) While in motion, the silver atom NSMF foreheads consist of both NSMF.

(b) In uniform field, each forward NSMF detected the field as relatively equal magnitude of B.

Thus F = (B1) (B2N) r2 c, gives net F = 0.

(c) In no uniform field, each of the NSMF interacted as follow:

-NSMF is attracted upward by -F = (+B1) (-B2U) r2 c.

+NSMF is repelled downward by +F = (+B1) (+B2U) r2 c.

Therefore the silver atoms formed split on the detected glass.

20- The measured nuclear force between two protons which is (45)2 times greater than the electric force [8], is re-interpreted as kinetic energy phase of great accelerated nucleons.

21- The MIH open the door for several new ideas in many fields.

22- Physical constant used, are:

q = 1.60217733x10-19 C.

me = 9.1093897x10-31 kg.

mp = 1.6726231x10-27 kg.

h = 6.6260755x10-34 J.s [12].

eO = 8.854223x10-12 C2.N-1.m-2 [37].

Acknowledgement

My gratitude to my sister Sophya and her husband Abubakar Mohamad and children for their hospitality. The Chairman of Physics Department, University of Nairobi, Prof. B.O. Kola for providing the scientific umbrella, and Dr John Buers Awuor and Dr Lino Gwaki in the Physics Department without whom this work could not have taken the present form. Late Leader Yousif Kuwa Makki, for his moral supports, The late Dr. Tajudeen Abdul-Raheem, the stuff of Nuba Relief Rehabilitation and Development Organization (NRRDO), particularly Mr Ali Abdulrahman , Amar Amon and Jacob Idriss. Brothers and sisters, Mustafa, Mahamad, Halima, Hukmalla, Arafa, Asha, Ahmad and Esmaeil. Finally, Dr Ali Khogali, Prof.John O. Owino, Dr C. Oludha, Dr P. Baki, Shiekh-Eldien Mousa, Katoo T. Nzivo, Chiromo Library Stuff, Kenya National Library and University of Makerery Library (Uganda).